Economy Of Bangladesh Essay

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Development of Apparel Industry in Bangladesh

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Development of Financial Market in Bangladesh

...DEVELOPMENT OF FINANCIAL MARKET IN BANGLADESH 1. INTRODUCTION The financial system in South Asia is dominated by the banking system in terms of assets, or finance of private households and domestic companies; major financial institutions are banks. This is why financial instrument of the financial market of Bangladesh are bank dominated. But a developed and diversified financial system with a sound debt and equity market enhances risk pooling and risk sharing opportunities for investors and borrowers. This also provides a safety cushion for banks as it helps move a crisis outside the banking system making it easier for the government to stand back. Bond financing reduces macroeconomic vulnerability to shocks and systemic risk through diversification of credit and investment risks. A mature bond market helps develop the derivatives market thereby facilitating hedging mechanisms and enabling greater diversification of risks by participants. Also, the wide variety of instruments available in a developed debt market results in gains to savers and borrowers. Besides, the coexistence of a developed domestic bond market and banking system helps each to act as a backstop for the other. In Bangladesh, an efficient bond market can play a critical role in supplementing the banking system to meet the requirements of the corporate sector for long-term capital investment and asset creation. It can provide a stable source of finance when the equity market is volatile. The bond market......

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Report on Economic Development in Bangladesh

...Introduction The major objectives of planned development have been increased national income, rural development, self-sufficiency in food, and increased industrial production. However, progress in achieving development goals has been slow. Political turmoil and untamed natural hazards of cyclone and flooding have combined with external economic shocks to persistently derail economic plans. In 1991, with the reinstitution of elected government, a new economic program was initiated that included financial sector reform and liberalization measures to encourage investment, government revenue improvement efforts (realized largely through implementation of a value-added-tax), and tight monetary policy. Income transfer measures, Food-for-Work, and other programs were also implemented to help protect the poorest segments of the population from the transitional effects of structural reform. . he shift from a rural/agro INTRODUCTION The shift from a rural/agro based economy to an urban/industrial economy is an essential part of the process of economic development. Although policymakers in the least developed countries (LDCs) have, at various times, attempted to make agriculture the primary engine of economic growth and employment generation, this approach has not worked, not least because of the contributions of the Green Revolution, which has had the dual effect of increasing agricultural productivity in the LDCs and displacing the rural labor force at the same time. Led by the......

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Impact of Nationwide Strikes on Economic Development: a Case Study of Bangladesh

...INTRODUCTION Bangladesh is a country in South Asia, located on the fertile Bengal delta. It is bordered by the Republic of India to its north, west and east, by the Union of Myanmar (Burma) to its south-east and by the Bay of Bengal to its south. It is separated from the Democratic Republic of Nepal and the Kingdom of Bhutan by the narrow Indian Siliguri Corridor. Together with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal, it makes up the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. The name Bangladesh means "Country of Bengal" in the official Bengali language. The borders of modern Bangladesh took shape during the Partition of Bengal and British India in 1947, when the region became the eastern wing of the newly formed state of Pakistan. Following years of political exclusion, ethnic and linguistic discrimination, and economic neglect by the politically dominant western wing, a surge of popular agitation, nationalism and civil disobedience led in 1971 to the Bangladesh Liberation War, resulting in the separation of the region from Pakistan and the formation of an independent Bangladesh. After independence, the new state proclaimed a secular multiparty democracy. The country then endured decades of poverty, famine, political turmoil and numerous military coups. Since the restoration of democracy in 1991, the country has experienced relative calm and economic progress, though its main political parties remain polarized. Post Independence Bangladesh had to face the devastation......

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Economics Development

...Chapter - I Introduction Economic development is one of the main objectives of every society in the world and economic growth is fundamental to economic development (Anwer and Sampath, 2000). There are several economic and non-economic factors affecting economic growth and development. Foreign trade plays an important role in the economic development and growth of a country (Meier, 1980). It serves as an important engine of economic growth and development. Foreign trade as a highway of learning and thus foreign ideas and creativity imported by foreign trade are an impetus to domestic creativity and growth and thus has a deep impact on welfare, stability, and development of an economy. The opening up of trade sometimes works as a sort of industrial revolution in a country whose resources were previously underdeveloped. An outstanding outward-oriented industrialization is superior to inward-oriented industrialization as a policy of economic development, and open economies have generally found to outperform than less open ones (Sachs and Warner, 1995). Industrial development and growth of 1970s and 1980s in some North East and South East Asian economies have also been in line with the lesson that external orientation and foreign trade generate a propelling force for economic development. Trade liberation can lead to significant income increases and effectively promote development by allowing the optional allocation of resources in an economy. Foreign trade is important to the......

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Human Development of Bangladesh

...Human Development of Bangladesh Topic: Human Development of Bangladesh Subject: Macroeconomics Subject Code: ECO-502 Submitted to: Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed Course Instructor BRAC Business School BRAC University Submitted by: |Sl. No. |Name |ID | |01. |Sigma Sharmeen Khan Prema |141 64 010 | |02. |Rubaiya Binte Mustafa |141 64 005 | |03. |Mahmudur Rahman Polash |141 64 015 | |04. |Md. Mohsin Alam |132 64 001 | |Section: 01 | Date of Submission: 28-03-2015 Letter of Transmittal March 28, 2015 Dr. Salehuddin Ahmed Course Instructor BRAC Business School BRAC University Subject: Submission of report on “Human Development of Bangladesh” Dear Sir, With due respect & humble submission, we the students of M.B.A. Spring 2015, are submitting the report on “Human Development of Bangladesh”. It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we have completed the report under your kind hearted direct......

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Economic Contribution of Women in Bangladesh

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Foreign Aid and Development of Bangladesh

...Introduction: Foreign Aid any capital inflow or other assistance given to a country which would not generally have been provided by natural market forces. In Bangladesh, foreign aid serves to bridge the gap between savings and investments and make up the deficits in the balance of payments. Foreign aid is a major means of financing the country's economic development. Economic literature generally classifies foreign aid into four main types. First, the long-term loans are usually repayable by the recipient country in foreign currency over ten or twenty years. Secondly, the soft loans repayable in local currency or in foreign currency but over a much longer period and with very low interest rates. The softest are the straight grants often given to the less developed countries. Sale of surplus products to a country in return for payment in the country's local currency is the third type and finally, the technical assistance given to the developing countries comprises the fourth type of foreign aid. Foreign aid is more like an investment in a risky market situation. The relative weighting of advantages and disadvantages depends on the planning behind the foreign aid and how well-orchestrated it is. Economic advantages: stimulated economic development in the receiver's country (better infrastructure, more education etc.) leads to economic growth. It can also create jobs as increased investment leads to more employment; this means less needs to be spent on unemployment......

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Nbfi in Microeconomic Development in Bangladesh

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Termpaper on Roll of Capital Market on the Economic Development of Bangladesh

... A Term Paper On “The Role of Capital Market on The Economic Development of Bangladesh” GOVT. SUHRAWARDY COLLEGE, PIROJPUR Department of Accounting Term Paper On “The Role of Capital Market on The Economic Development of Bangladesh” Submitted To: Md. Faruk Hosain Assistant Professor Department of Accounting Govt. Suhrawardy College, Pirojpur Submitted By: Alamgir Hossain Roll No- 9792874 Reg. No-1727384 Session-2010-2011 BBA (Hons) 4th Year Department of Accounting Govt. Suhrawardy College, Pirojpur Date of Submission: February 12, 2014 Letter of Transmittal Date : Md. Faruk Hosain Assistant Professor Govt. Suhrawardy College, Pirojpur Subject: Submission of Term Paper on “The role of capital market on the economic development of Bangladesh”. Sir, As a part of BBA program a term paper is enclosed herewith. The report was prepared on “The role of capital market on the economic development of Bangladesh.” In the course of preparation the report, I tried with the best of my capacity to accommodate as much information and relevant issues as possible and tried to follow the instructions as you have suggested. In the time of preparation the report, relevant documents, data, information were studied and practical knowledge had been gathered. I tried my best to make this report as much informative as possible. I sincerely believe that it will satisfy your requirements. I however sincerely believe that this report will serve the......

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Economic Development of Bangladesh

...Economic Development of Bangladesh Economy of Bangladesh Economic Position in World: The economy of Bangladesh is a rapidly developing market-based economy. Its per capita income in 2010 was est. US$1,700 (adjusted by purchasing power parity). According to the International Monetary Fund, Bangladesh ranked as the 43rd largest economy in the world in 2010 in PPP terms and 57th largest in nominal terms, among the Next Eleven or N-11 of Goldman Sachs and D-8 economies, with a gross domestic product of US$269.3 billion in PPP terms and US$104.9 billion in nominal terms. Growth rate and Economic Sectors: The economy has grown at the rate of 6-7% per annum over the past few years. More than half of the GDP is generated by the service sector; while nearly half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector. Other goods produced are textiles, jute, fish, vegetables, fruit, leather and leather goods, ceramics, RMGs. Remittances from Bangladeshis working overseas, mainly in the Middle East, is the major source of foreign exchange earnings; exports of garments and textiles are the other main sources of foreign exchange earnings. Ship building and cane cultivation have become a major force of growth. GDP's rapid growth due to sound financial control and regulations have also contributed to its growth; however, foreign direct investment is yet to rise significantly. Bangladesh has made major strides in its human development index. The land is devoted mainly......

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Bangladesh Economic Update

...Bangladesh Economic Update Bangladesh Economic Update Capital Market Capital Market October 2011 October 2011 Bangladesh Economic Update Volume 2, No. 9, October 2011 Acknowledgement: Bangladesh Economic Update is an output of the Economic Policy Unit of the Unnayan Onneshan, a multidisciplinary research centre based in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The report is prepared by a team, under the guidance of Rashed Al Mahmud Titumir. The team comprises Md. Aslam Hossain and A. Z. M. Saleh. The report is an output of the programme titled Enhancing the responsiveness of the government to address exclusion and inequality. The programme has been supported from a grant of Christian Aid. © Copyright: Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators The content of this publication may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes with proper citation (please send output to the address mentioned below). Any other form of reproduction, storage in a retrieval system or transmission by any means for commercial purposes, requires permission from the Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators. For orders and request please contact: Unnayan Onneshan - The Innovators 16/2, Indira Road, Farmgate Dhaka-1215, Bangladesh Tell: + (880-2) 8158274, 9110636 Fax: + (880-2) 8159135 E-mail: info@unnayan.org Web: www.unnayan.org Bangladesh Economic Update, October 2011 2|P a g e SUMMARY This issue of Bangladesh Economic Update discusses the continuous fall in the capital market of Bangladesh. Continuous decrease in the capital......

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Stock Market Development & Economic Growth in Bangladesh

...state of relationship between the stock market development & economic growth in Bangladesh. As a third world country, the economic development of Bangladesh is still dependent on the ups & downs of some macroeconomic as well as capital market factors , like, GDP, real GDP, GDP growth, market capitalization, volatility of stocks, Financial Statement information and other financial factors. This paper has been prepared & presented to have a clear view about contribution of capital market to the economic growth of Bangladesh. So far I know, no analytical study regarding this issue still has not been conducted in Bangladesh. So that I’ve desired to study on this topic in a deeper detail to focus on the relationship of capital market & economic growth from both economic & accounting point of view. I also have focused on how the reporting of the Financial Statements of different institutions according to various local & international standards can have an impact in accelerating the economic advancement in Bangladesh. In assessing the impact of stock market on our country’s economy, I have used some statistical techniques & finance issues as correlation & regression analysis, measurement of cost of capital, index method etc based on the data obtained from the main stock exchange of the country DSE. The study reveals that there is a very close & positive relationship of stock market development of Bangladesh with this country’s economic growth. And also another result of this study......

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Foreign Aid and Development of Bangladesh

...thesis examines the impact of aid on Bangladesh and the inability of aid to lay the foundations for the country’s solid economic growth. It is argued that while aid has helped to sustain the present levels of per capita national output, it has been relatively ineffective in inducing the qualitative changes needed for achieving significant increases in production and improvement in income distribution. Findings imply that donors have responded as a group to changes in Bangladesh’s development requirements but major donors have also responded both to the country’s development requirements as well as their own interests. Donors’ own interests hamper aid effectiveness in the country’s development endeavours. The thesis investigates whether aid to Bangladesh has exerted any impact on the country’s economic growth. Following recent literature, the thesis examines whether the impact of aid on growth is conditional upon measures of policy and governance. This has not been attempted intensely in the past aid effectiveness literature. The thesis disaggregates total aid into its various components to examine whether aid effectiveness is conditional upon the type of aid. Results indicate that there is little evidence that foreign aid alone has contributed to economic growth in a country. But there is some evidence that aid can be effective at increasing growth while a country has good governance and macroeconomic policy environment in place. Given that Bangladesh suffers from high......

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On “Problems Capital Market and Its Potential in Economic Development in Bangladesh”.

... 1 Introduction: Bangladesh capital market is one of the smallest in Asia but the third largest in the south Asia region. It has two full-fledged automated stock exchanges namely Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) and Chittagong Stock Exchange (CSE) and an over-the counter exchange operated by CSE. It also consists of a dedicated regulator, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC),since, it implements rules and regulations, monitors their implications to operate and develop the capital market. It consists of Central Depository Bangladesh Limited (CDBL), the only Central Depository in Bangladesh that provides facilities for the settlement of transactions of dematerialized securities in CSE and DSE. 2.1 Functions of capital market: The functioning of an efficient capital market may ensure smooth floatation of funds from the savers to the investors. When banking system cannot meet up the total need for funds to the market economy, capital market stands up to supplement. To put it in a single sentence, we can therefore say that the increased need for funds in the business sector has created an immense need for an effective and efficient capital market. It facilitates an efficient transfer of resources from savers to investors and becomes conduits for channeling investment funds from investors to borrowers. T 2.2 Product of capital market: • Shares, • Debentures, • Mutual funds, • Bonds, • Derivatives, • Future and options. 2.3 ......

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Page last updated on February 28, 2018

Economy - overview:
Bangladesh's economy has grown roughly 6% per year since 1996 despite prolonged periods of political instability, poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the services sector, almost half of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product.Garment exports, the backbone of Bangladesh's industrial sector, accounted for more than 80% of total exports and were on track to again surpass $25 billion in 2017. The sector continues to grow, despite the need for improvements in factory working conditions to avert further high-profile accidents that have killed more than 1,000 workers in recent years. Steady export growth in the garment sector combined with remittances from overseas Bangladeshis - which totaled about $13 billion and 6% of GDP in 2016 - are key contributors to Bangladesh's sustained economic growth and rising foreign exchange reserves.The recent influx of hundreds of millions of additional refugees from Burma will place pressure on the Bangladeshi government’s budget and the country’s rice supplies, which declined in 2017 in part because of adverse weather.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$686.5 billion (2017 est.) $640.7 billion (2016 est.) $597.8 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 34

GDP (official exchange rate):
$250 billion (2016 est.)
[see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ]

GDP - real growth rate:
7.1% (2017 est.) 7.2% (2016 est.) 6.8% (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
[see also: GDP - real growth rate country ranks ]

GDP - per capita:
$4,200 (2017 est.) $4,000 (2016 est.) $3,700 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
country comparison to the world: 177

Gross national saving:
29.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 30.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 30.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
[see also: Gross national saving country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption: 67.5%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - household consumption country ranks ]
government consumption: 6.4%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - government consumption country ranks ]
investment in fixed capital: 30.3%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in fixed capital country ranks ]
investment in inventories: 1%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - investment in inventories country ranks ]
exports of goods and services: 15.5%
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - exports of goods and services country ranks ]
imports of goods and services: -20.7% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by end use - imports of goods and services country ranks ]

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 14.2%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 29.2%
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - industry country ranks ]
services: 56.5% (2017 est.)
[see also: GDP - composition, by sector of origin - services country ranks ]

Agriculture - products:
rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry

Industries:
jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate:
8.2% (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
[see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ]

Labor force:
73.41 million
note: extensive migration of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
[see also: Labor force country ranks ]

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 47%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - agriculture country ranks ]
industry: 13%
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - industry country ranks ]
services: 40% (2010 est.)
[see also: Labor force - by occupation - services country ranks ]

Unemployment rate:
4.1% (2017 est.) 4.1% (2016 est.)
note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many persons counted as employed work only a few hours a week and at low wages
country comparison to the world: 55
[see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ]

Population below poverty line:
31.5% (2010 est.)
[see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ]

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 4%
[see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share - lowest 10% country ranks ]
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32.1 (2010) 33.6 (1996)
country comparison to the world: 113
[see also: Distribution of family income - Gini index country ranks ]

Budget:
revenues: $27.08 billion
[see also: Budget - revenues country ranks ]
expenditures: $39.31 billion (2017 est.)
[see also: Budget - expenditures country ranks ]

Taxes and other revenues:
10.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
[see also: Taxes and other revenues country ranks ]

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
[see also: Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) country ranks ]

Public debt:
28.1% of GDP (2017 est.) 26.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
[see also: Public debt country ranks ]

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.7% (2017 est.) 5.7% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
[see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ]

Central bank discount rate:
5% (30 October 2016) 5% (30 October 2015)
country comparison to the world: 80
[see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ]

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.2% (31 December 2017 est.) 10.41% (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
[see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ]

Stock of narrow money:
$28.37 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $25.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
[see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ]

Stock of broad money:
$132.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $121.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
[see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ]

Stock of domestic credit:
$144.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $133.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
[see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ]

Market value of publicly traded shares:
$50.98 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $41.73 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $23.55 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
[see also: Market value of publicly traded shares country ranks ]

Current account balance:
-$1.751 billion (2017 est.) $1.381 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
[see also: Current account balance country ranks ]

Exports:
$35.91 billion (2017 est.) $34.14 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
[see also: Exports country ranks ]

Exports - commodities:
garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather

Exports - partners:
US 16.4%, Germany 15.3%, UK 10.9%, France 6.1%, Spain 5% (2016)

Imports:
$42.38 billion (2017 est.) $40.37 billion (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
[see also: Imports country ranks ]

Imports - commodities:
cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:
China 26.3%, India 14.8%, Singapore 5.2%, Japan 4.5% (2016)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$33.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $32.28 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
[see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ]

Debt - external:
$45.07 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $41.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
[see also: Debt - external country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$14.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $13.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home country ranks ]

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$389.5 million (31 December 2017 est.) $228.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
[see also: Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad country ranks ]

Exchange rates:
taka (BDT) per US dollar - 80.69 (2017 est.) 78.468 (2016 est.) 78.468 (2015 est.) 77.947 (2014 est.) 77.614 (2013 est.)

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