NMU Olson Library provides subscription access to the entire Chicago Manual of Style online (17th edition, 2017). Please consult the Manual if you need more information on citing a particular source or if your source is not addressed below. Additionally, consult the Manual for creating parenthetical references and reference lists, and preparing your manuscripts/papers/reports.
This guide includes some of the more common examples for citing references as end notes or in bibliographies. Chicago style dictates that all references are indented and single-spaced. The examples are based on guidelines listed in the The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003). It is located in the Library's reference collection under the following call number: Ref Z 253 .U69 2003.
For information on annotated bibliographies, see How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography from the Olin & Uris Libraries of Cornell University.
The following abbreviations are used in this guide: N= End note entry; B=Bibliography entry; T=In Text entry
|N||1. Michael Asher, A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on the Southwest (New York: Viking, 1986), 55.|
|B||Asher, Michael. A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on the Southwest.|
New York: Viking, 1986.
|T||(Asher 1986, 55)|
|N||1. Frances Kendall and Leon Low, After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1987), 101.|
|B|| Kendall, Frances, and Leon Low. After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa. San |
Francisco: ICS Press, 1987.
|T||(Kendall and Low 1987, 101)|
|N||12. Jeffery Prager, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman, School Desegregation Research (New York: Plenum Press, 1986).|
|B||Prager, Jeffery, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman, eds. School Desegregation Research.|
New York: Plenum Press, 1986.
|T||(Prager, Longshore, and Seeman 1986)|
More Than Three Authors
|N|| 13. Hugh Clout and others, Western Europe: Geographical Perspectives (New York:|
John Wiley & Sons, 1987).
|B||Clout, Hugh, Mark Blackwsell, Russell King, and David Pinder. Western Europe:|
Geographical Perspectives. NewYork: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
|T||(Clout et al. 1987)|
Institution or Corporate Author
|N||1. University of Delaware, Video Production Unit, Reading for Children (Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1991), 53.|
|B||University of Delaware, Video Production Unit. Reading for Children. Newark, Del.: International|
Reading Association, 1991.
|T||(University of Delaware 1991, 53)|
Editor or Compiler as Author
|N||12. Spyros Doxiades, ed., Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987).|
|B||Doxiades, Spyros, ed. Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion. New York: John Wiley & Sons, |
Chapter or Article by One Author Contained Within Book by an Editor or Other Author.
|N||19. Kim N. Dietrich, "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological Development," in Pediatric Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice, ed. Keith Owen Yeates and M. Douglas Ris, 217-222 (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000).|
|B|| Dietrich, Kim N. "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological Development." In Pediatric|
Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice, ed. Keith Owen Yeates and
M. Douglas Ris, 206-234. New York: The Guilford Press, 2000.
|N||1. Erika Dyke, review of Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power in Canada, 1920-1961, by Catherine Carstairs, Canadian Historical Review 87, no.4 (2006): 691.|
|B||Dyke, Erika. Review of Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power|
in Canada, 1920-1961, by Catherine Carstairs. Canadian Historical Review 87,
no.4 (2006): 691-693.
|T||(Dyke 2006, 691)|
Chicago Manual states "well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes... the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified (section 17.238)"
|N||1. World Book Encyclopedia, 1999 ed., s.v. "Gene Therapy."|
|T||In the entry on gene therapy, in the 1999 edition of World Book Encyclopedia..."|
Article in a Scholarly Journal
EXAMPLE #1 - No issue number present
|N||12. Barbara Mueller, "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of American and Japanese Advertising Appeals," Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 52.|
|B||Mueller, Barbara. "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of American and Japanese Advertising|
Appeals." Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 48-57.
|T||(Mueller 1987, 52)|
EXAMPLE #2 - Issue number is present; no need for month or season preceeding date.
|N||12. Kevin J. Gutzwiller and Stanley H. Anderson, "Spatial Extent of Human- Intrusion Effects on Subalpine Bird Distributions," American Birds 27, no. 2 (1999): 112.|
|B||Gutzwiller, Kevin J., and Stanley H. Anderson. "Spatial Extent of Human-Intrusion Effects on |
Subalpine Bird Distributions." American Birds 27, no. 2 (1999): 110-135.
Article in a Popular MagazineIf in doubt whether a periodical is a magazine or journal, use magazine form if the volume number is not easily located.
|N||6. Billy Smith, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia," Time, November 15, 1998, 23.|
|B||Smith, Billy, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia." Time, November|
15, 1998, 21-23.
|T||(Smith 1998, 23)|
Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Paul Blackhorn noted in a Chicago Tribune article on May 10, 2007, . . . ") instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well.EXAMPLE #1 - Formal example
|N||1. Paul Bremmer, "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified Food," USA Today, February 11, 2000, Life section.|
|B||Bremmer, Paul. "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified Food." USA |
Today, February 11, 2000.
EXAMPLE #2 - Unsigned article. Unsigned articles are best dealt with in text or notes (17.192). If a bibliography entry is needed, the newspaper stands in place of author.
|N||1. "Church Builds Day Care as Outreach into Community," Detroit News, Early Morning edition, August 20, 2007.|
|B||Detroit News, "Church Builds Day Care as Outreach into Community," Early Morning edition,|
August 20, 2007.
|T||(Detroit News 2007)|
Government DocumentThe Chicago Manual has an extensive discussion of government documents starting at 17.295. Please consult the relevant sections if you have further questions. Executive Department Document Chicago style states "when authors are identified, their names should be cited (17.317)."
|N||15. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, America's Landscape Legacy (Washington D.C.: Government Publishing Office, 1993), 13.|
|B || U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. America's Landscape Legacy.|
Washington D.C.: Government Publishing Office, 1993.
|T||(U.S. Department of the Interior 1993, 13)|
|N||1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, America's Wetlands :Our Vital Link Between Land and Water, 1995, Report EPA 843-K-95-001 (Washington, DC, 136|
|B|| U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and |
Watersheds. America's Wetlands :Our Vital Link Between Land and Water. 1995. Report
EPA 843-K-95-001. Washington, DC.
|T||(U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999, 136)|
|N||1. House Committee on Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Date Rape Drugs : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106 Cong., 1st sess., March 11, 1999, 57.|
|B||U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and |
Investigations. Date rape drugs : hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives. 106 Cong., 1st
sess., March 11, 1999.
|T||(U.S. House Committee 1999, 57)|
Conference PaperIf a paper is included in a published proceedings then it can be treated like a chapter in a book (17.68-17.71). The following example is for a paper not included in a proceedings.
|N||1. Terrence R. Fehner, "The U.S. Department of Energy and the Cold War," (paper, presented at the conference on The Power of Free Inquiry and Cold War International History, College Park, Md., September 26, 1998).|
|B||Fehner, Terrence R. "The U.S. Department of Energy and the Cold War." Paper, conference on|
The Power of Free Inquiry and Cold War International History, College Park,
Md., September 25-26, 1998.
|N||1. Abigail Keller, "Dreaming the Train Underwater" (master's theses, Northern Michigan University 2007), 17-20.|
|B || Keller, Abigail. "Dreaming the Train Underwater." Master's Thesis, Northern Michigan University, |
|T||(Keller 2007, 17)|
A Web site is best dealt with in notes or in text; they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list. Below are more formal examples.
EXAMPLE #1 - Author is available
|N||1. Ronald L. Fingerson, "John Wilkes Booth in the Bollinger Lincoln Collection," University of Iowa, Special Collections and University Archives, http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/fingerson.htm|
|B||Fingerson, Ronald L. "John Wilkes Booth in the Bollinger Lincoln Collection." University|
of Iowa, Special Collections and University Archives,
EXAMPLE #2 - If there is no author, the owner of the site may substitute (17.237)
|N||5. Library of Congress, "Cold War: Cuban Missle Crisis," http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html.|
|B||Library of Congress. "Cold War: Cuban Missle Crisis." http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html.|
|T||(Library of Congress)|
EXAMPLE #3 - For content from informal sites such as personal home pages, descriptive phrases may be used when no title exists on the page (17.237)
|N||1. Marquette County History Museum Web site, "Peter White," http://www.marquettecohistory.org/pw.htm|
|B||Marquette County History Museum. "Peter White." http://www.marquettecohistory.org/events.htm.|
|T||(Marquette County History Museum)|
|N||1. Elinor Ann Accampo, Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.02489.|
|B|| Accampo, Elinor Ann. Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914.|
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.02489.
|T||(Accampo 1995, 259)|
Article in a Scholarly Journal
EXAMPLE #1 - If page numbers are listed, include them in the bibliography.
|N||1. Robin Lucy, "Flying Home: Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and the Black Folk During World War II," Journal of American Folklore 120, no. 477 (2007): 259, http://find.galegroup.com/.|
|B||Lucy, Robin. "Flying Home: Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and the Black Folk During World War II."|
Journal of American Folklore 120, no. 477 (2007): 257-283, http://find.galegroup.com.
|T||(Lucy 2007, 259)|
EXAMPLE #2 - If access date is required include it parenthetically at the end of the citation; note example below does not have page numbers included in the article.
|N|| 1. Daniel Todman , "World War I Battles and Strategy," Canadian Journal|
of History 42, no. 1 (2007), http://find.galegroup.com (accessed August 21, 2007).
|B|| Todman, Daniel. "World War I Battles and Strategy." Canadian Journal of History|
42, no. 1 (2007), http://find.galegroup.com (accessed August 21, 2007).
EXAMPLE #3 - If a digital object identifier (DOI) number is available, include it in place of page numbers.
|N|| 1. John D. Fair, "The Intellectual JFK: Lessons in Statesmanship from British History,"|
Diplomatic History 30, no. 1 (2006), doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00540.x, http://www.blackwell- synergy.com.
|B||Fair, John D. "The Intellectual JFK: Lessons in Statesmanship from British History." Diplomatic History 30,|
no. 1 (January 2006), doi:10.1111/j.1467-709.2006.00540.x, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com.
Article in a Popular Magazine
|N||1. John Greenwald, "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public Schools, But Can They Make Them Pay?," Time, March 22, 2000, http://www.time.com.|
|B|| Greenwald, John. "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public Schools, But Can They Make Them Pay?" Time, March 22, |
|N||2. Jodi Wilgoren, "A Revolution in Education Clicks Into Place," New York Times, March, 26, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com.|
|B||Wilgoren, Jodi. "A Revolution in Education Clicks Into Place," New York Times, March 26, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com.|
|N||1. Environmental Protection Agency, Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health, 1999, http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/oar/oaqps/airnow/health/index.html.|
|B||United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to|
know about ozone and your health. 1999. http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/
|T||(Environmental Protection Agency 1999)|
Electronic MailReferences to email converstations are usually run into the text or given in a note (17.208). They are rarely listed in a bibliography.
|N||1. Paul Jameson, email message to author, May 10, 1998.|
|T||In an email message with the author on May 10, 1998, Paul Jameson speculated the.....|
Original work of art [electronic]
|N||3. Alexei Jawlensky, Girl with the Green Face, oil on composition board, 1910, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, http://www.artstor.org (accessed July 10, 2010).|
|B||Jawlensky, Alexei. Girl with the Green Face. Oil on composition board, 1910. Art|
Institute of Chicago, Chicago. http://www.artstor.org (accessed July 10,
|T||(Jawlensky, Girl with the Green Face, oil on composition board, 1910, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago)|
Personal CommunicationReferences to conversations, letters, memorandum, email messages and the like are cited in text or in a note, rarely in in a bibliography.
|N||1. Charles Kuralt to John D. Voelker, 27 September 1971, Voelker Papers, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University, MSS-39, 15/7, 1-4-4.|
|T||In a letter to Voelker on September 27, 1971, Charles Kuralt spoke of......|
|N||1. President Judith I. Bailey to Ms. Darlene Pierce, memorandum, October 10, 1999, Office of the President, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University, 0201-01, 2/3, 12-01-03.|
|T||In a memorandum dated October 10, 1999, President Bailey advised Darlene Pierce, Dean of Academic Information Services...|
DVD and Videocassette
|N||10. Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region, Videorecording (Marquette, Mich.: DK Video Productions, 1997).|
|B||Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region. Marquette, Mich.: DK Video Productions,|
|T||In the 1997 videorecording, Finish Settlement in the Lake Superior Region, Arnold Alanen...|
|N||1. Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World, DVD, directed by Monte Markham and Adam Friedman (New York : A&E Home Video, 1995).|
|B||Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World. DVD. Directed by Monte Markham and Adam |
Friedman. New York : A&E Home Video, 1995.
|T||In a commentary on their movie, Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World, Markham and Friedman explain...|
Sound RecordingEXAMPLE #1
|N||1. Jessie Kennedy Prescott, California Sheep Ranching and Family Life in the 1880s Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott, 3 3/4 ips, 5 in., 1962, tape reel.|
|B|| Prescott, Jessie Kennedy. California Sheep Ranching and Family Life in the 1880s|
Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott. 3 3/4 ips, 5 in. 1962. Tape reel.
|N||2. Larry B. Massie, Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past, (Southfield, Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999), cassette.|
|B||Massie, Larry B. Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past. Southfield,|
Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999. Cassette.
Works of Art
Exhibition catalog (cited as a book)
|N||13. New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 5 x 7 : Seven Ceramic Artists Each Acknowledge Five Sources of Inspiration (New York: School of Art and Design, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 1993), 23.|
|B||New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. 5 x 7 : Seven Ceramic|
Artists Each Acknowledge Five Sources of Inspiration. New York: School of
Art and Design, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 1993.
|T||(New York State College 1993, 23)|
Individual as author or editor
|N||1. Linda Merrill, After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting (Atlanta: High Museum of Art, 2003), 63|
|B||Merrill, Linda. After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting.|
Atlanta: High Museum of Art, 2003.
|T||(Merrill 2003, 63)|
|N||3. Lisa M. Messinger, Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, Selections from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992, Atlanta: High Musem of Art, 1992), 121.|
|B||Messinger, Lisa M. Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, Selections from the|
Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992.
Atlanta: High Musem of Art, 1992.
|T||(Messinger 1992, 121)|
Original work of art
|N||1. Henri Matisse, The Window Interieur Au Myosotis, oil on canvas, 1916, Detroit Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit.|
|B||Matisse, Henri. The Window Interieur Au Myosotis. Oil on canvas, 1916. Detroit|
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit.
|T||(Matisse, The Window Interieur Au Myosotis, oil on canvas, 1916, Detroit Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit)|
Work of art reproduced in a book
|N||2. Bruce Nauman, ""Double Poke in the Eye II," neon sculpture, as reproduced in The Decade Show (New York: Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, 1990), plate LVII.|
|B||Nauman, Bruce. "Double Poke in the Eye II." Neon sculpture. As reproduced in|
The Decade Show. New York: Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, 1990.
|T||(Nauman 1990, plate LVII)|
Q. I would like to quote a sentence from my textbook that was initially a quote from another source. Which source do I document? Do I document my textbook or the original source (or both)?
A. Please see CMOS 14.273: “To cite a source from a secondary source (‘quoted in . . .’) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, both the original and the secondary source must be listed.” Here’s an example:
1. Louis Zukofsky, “Sincerity and Objectification,” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.
Q. Hi. I need to list resources in many documents, and sometimes URL listings are not enough. How can I find author information at websites?
A. Are you asking how to find out who is the author of a given website? I’m afraid I can’t help you—if the owner of the site hasn’t posted his or her name, I don’t think there’s any way to know. It’s just one of the reasons that some Internet documents may not be suitable for citing in careful research.
Update from another reader: If you want to find out the owner of a website (its domain) you can look it up using the Whois database from InterNIC (http://www.internic.net/). It will tell you who owns the domain name. While it may not tell the person doing the search who is the author of a particular article, it will give contact information for the owner of the domain, such as his or her email address, and that person may be able to answer questions such as who is the author of a particular article.
Q. In our reference section, websites will not show dates (of access or site creation). Where would you then place a website entry (without a date) within an alphabetized entry that has numerous em-dash entries by the same author? Thank you.
A. Chicago style uses n.d. to mean “no date” at the beginning of such an entry. You can put all the n.d. items together at the top or bottom of that author’s works, arranged in alphabetical order by title.
Q. Hello. I have a question regarding reviews. In the 15th edition of CMOS , 17.202 addresses the citation of a review in a newspaper. I was wondering about the format of a review in a periodical. How do you treat a review with a title? Thank you so much.
A. See the sixteenth edition of CMOS–especially paragraph 14.214 and the examples at 14.215–16.
Q. How would one document an interview?
A. Please see CMOS 14.219: “Unpublished interviews are best cited in text or in notes, though they occasionally appear in bibliographies. Citations should include the names of both the person interviewed and the interviewer; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place or date of the interview (or both, if known); and, if a transcript or tape is available, where it may be found. Permission to quote may be needed; see chapter 4.” Here’s an example:
8. Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.
Q. What is the correct way to list exhibition catalogues in a bibliography? I have seen them listed in so many different ways that I am confused. I don’t really want to draw particular attention to the editors, but some lists alphabetize exhibition catalogues according to the names of the editors. Other times, authors’ names are used, but that seems to mean that one of the authors is also an editor. I have even seen listings under the name of the sponsoring museum. What is the correct way to do this? Grazie.
A. Chicago style treats an exhibition catalog like any other published book. Like books, catalogs may be listed by title, if the bibliographer thinks the editor is not particularly relevant to the discussion or known to readers. Please see the example in CMOS 14.250.
Q. I am using documents from a Civil War Military Service Record, Pension file, and Bounty Land Warrant in several reports. I was able to obtain photocopies of these records from the National Archive. How do I footnote these primary sources and how should the bibliography information for them be given? Do I use the Public Documents format or the Unpublished Material format? For example, I was able to discover my subject’s first and second wives were fighting over his pension from a Department of Interior, Bureau of Pensions, record card and several affidavits. Would I give the year I obtained the records, as with an electronic source, since the date some of these records were created is unknown? Thank you.
A. Your sources could be styled either way. When CMOS doesn’t cover a particular type of citation, our hope is that writers will be able to extrapolate from the examples of similar sources and create a reasonable format. Try to style similar citations in the same way. Don’t worry about finding some “correct” way to style such sources. Following the sequence of more conventional citations (author first, then title, and so on) will help readers find what they’re looking for. The important thing is to be clear and include the information that your readers will need to understand the citation and locate the source, if it still exists. If you think extra information would be helpful, by all means add it. Annotate in sentence style if you can’t think of any other place to put leftover information.
Q. How do I document a direct quote correctly if I don’t have all the information? Here’s all I have: Catherine Bertini, U.N. World Food Programme. There is no actual book, magazine, journal, or other source named; no date or page number. I’ve combed the Chicago TOC for a clue. Sorry if I’ve missed the obvious.
A. The reason you won’t find this in CMOS is that it’s poor scholarship to quote someone if you can’t document the source of the quotation. What you have here is more like a rumor. If you can’t find more information about when or where this person spoke, you should perhaps reconsider using her words in your document.
Q. Dear Sir/Madam, all of my resources are from German books, but now I have to write a thesis in English. My question is, if I translated the German book by my own or with a help of software and write it down in English version in my thesis, how can I explain it in the footnote (using Author-Date System for documentation) and in my bibliography? Do I need to mention that the source is translated to English? How can I make a footnote and a bibliography regarding the translation? Could you please give me an example of it? I hope you could help me.
A. You should cite the German book by its German author and title in your list of works cited. Then, when you are quoting from the book, you can note in your citation (in the text or in a footnote) “my translation.” E.g., “(Zelner 2004; my translation).” If all translations are your own, a single note to that effect will suffice. For more guidance, including examples, please see CMOS 14.71, 14.107–8, 14.137, and 14.142.
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