3 Types Of Job Design Essays On Abortion

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Job Design

Job design can defined as work arrangement or re- arrangement focused on overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from mechanistic tasks and repetitive. Organizations try to improve productivity levels by giving non- monetary rewards through job design. Non- monetary rewards such as better satisfaction from

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a personal achievement in meeting the responsibility of one’s work and increased challenge (Business Dictionary, 2013)

It also refers to constitute a particular job position by grouped together with set of activities and tasks. Job design should not be underestimated because of organization’s overall productivity will be affected by the way jobs are structured (Pamela S. Lewis, 2007). 2.0 Various Approaches of Job Design

Mechanistic Job- Design Approach

This approach is derived from the scientific- management school of thought, work specialization and work simplification. Its main scientific basis is classic industrial engineering.

Diagram 1: indicates the questions might ask to identify whether a job matches the mechanistic approach. Jobs with high mechanistic features the employees training time is usually very short. The reason is mental demands are less, overload and stress unlikely. The disadvantages of this approach are less motivated, less satisfied and higher absenteeism will occur within the organization. In highly repetitive and machine- paced work can lead to health complaints and injuries caused by carelessness and physical wear. For example, low-level factory jobs and unskilled jobs who are working at construction (Michael A. Campion and Paul W. Thayer, 2001).

Biological Job- Design Approach

This approach stems from the sciences of biomechanics, anthropometry, occupational medicine and work physiology. It is called ergonomics, and its main focus on minimize the biological risks of work and physical costs. Ergonomics is means the science of designing working environments or
workstations that match the needs and physical abilities of employees. The goal is to make sure that people’s physical limitations and capabilities are not exceeded by the design of their jobs.

This approach has been applied in the redesign of equipment used in higher physically demanding jobs so that employees can perform better. This will

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result in less physical fatigue, create less complaints of health, cause fewer injuries compare with other jobs, and require less physical effort. For instance, ladders, gloves and other equipment have been improved for the telephone installed job and many of assembly tools have been innovated become smaller to is better for female worker to grasp.

In fact, a proper seating design is important for all employees with office jobs because of musculoskeletal health (Michael A. Campion and Paul W. Thayer, 2001). Through this approach employees are more satisfying with their job, but it requires higher financial costs to innovate the equipment in the organization.

Modern Job-Design Approach

Modern Job-Design has been practicing by organizations nowadays. It can be divided into job enlargement, job rotation, job enrichment and job empowerment. Job enlargement can define as a job with increasing the number and variety of tasks. This approach was developing challenges to the workers. The tasks are giving at the same level of responsibility; job enlargement is also known as horizontal job loading. Conversely, job enrichment is known as vertical job loading, an employee add variety task in different area. The results of increasing task can be giving the job holder more discretion, authority, and responsibility for making decision in their present role.

Next, job rotation is the planned and systematic rotation of employees in pre-determined jobs so they able to get additional skills or knowledge. It is very useful for developing managers because they need to have fully understanding overall operation in the organization. This approach also will help the employees who want to improve their knowledge and advance to a new role. One of the benefits of job rotation are employees have an opportunity to learn skills, improve knowledge and ability by working in the different business units or departments. Another job design approaches is empowerment, it can refer to a management practice of sharing rewards, power and information with employees so that they able to take initiative and make decisions to resolve problems and improve performance.

Empowerment is based on the idea that providing employees opportunity, skills, resources, motivation, authority, as well holding them accountable and responsible for outcomes of their decisions, will contribute to their satisfaction and competence. These approaches are the most effectively motivating method used by the organizations which improves the decision making skills of the employees and useful in their overall development (John B. Miner, 2007).

Important of Job Design

Job design is very important because it design to fulfill the requirements of the organization for operational efficiency, productivity and quality of product or service. A proper job design might help the organization to achieve the goals. Job design offers good rest and work schedule by clearly defining the number of hours an employee required to spend on his or her job. For example, job design for insurance agent has a flexible work schedule and it will help to target more customers. A flexible work schedule means employee can set their own working hours with a fixed number of total hours (CareerBuilder, 2012).

This is because their customer may ask them to come out for sign contract or have the knowledge of the insurance at night if the working hour for insurance agent is fixed it will result the agent might not able to get the sales. Furthermore, Job design is fulfilling the needs of the individual for interest, accomplishment, and challenge. When the organization provided a proper job design for each individual employee may aid to increase the job satisfaction, retention of employees, and commitment of employees. For example, organization has sales and marketing vacant and this position have to travel. So the organization has to hire the person who is interest on travelling and meet the requirement of the job.

This not only benefits to the individual employee it also the organization due to the employees is found interest with the job. Furthermore, the organization should use motivational job approach to retain employees. The employer ought to use job enrichment or enlargement to sustain the employees who are look for challenge on work. With job enrichment, employer can expand the task for some employees. The employer may provide more interesting and stimulating work that increases variety and challenge to an employee’s daily routine.

In fact, Coca- Cola Company is providing on-the-job learning, development programs, coaching and feedback, they make sure that everyone in the organization to learn more and build their careers. The Coca- Cola stated “we want Coca-Cola to be a great place to work where people are inspired and motivated to be the best they can be” (Coca-Cola, 2010)

Advantages of Job Design

Besides that, a good job design will increase the value of the position to the organization, engages the employee and reduce organizational risk. It results to better organizational effectiveness and efficiency. Not only benefits the organization it also brings better results from employees. Organizational Benefits

Employee Benefits

– Increased productivity and efficiency
– Greater clarity of work role and purpose.
– More effective work teams
– Good team cohesion as roles, relationships and resources are clearly defined – Improved employee attraction, engagement and retention – Increased job satisfaction and engagement
– Targeted training to maximize value from training investment. – Targeted training to meet current and future job needs

The job design can benefit the organization to increase productivity and efficiency due to the employees has a clear work role, target and purpose of the job. Nowadays, the job advertising for all vacancy all clearly stated what the position required. Other than that, the organization will benefit more effective work teams through the team cohesion as roles, relationships and resources are clearly defined. That means they are clearly understand what is the purpose or goal for the organization and it will reduce conflict between employer and employees.

Through a proper job design for every individual employee the organization can reduce the requirement cost because the engagement and retention of employees. For employees, they are more satisfied with their job because the job is customizing for her/ him. Furthermore, Training is a part of job design. Contrary to the philosophy of “leave them alone”, is better to emphasis on training so they aware what are their job demands and how it is to be done (MSG, 2013).

It targeted on training employees to maximize value to the organization; for employees’ benefits, they can get proper training from the organization and meet the current or future job needs. For example, insurance agent in AIA is provided training to improve their communication skills and soft skills to convince the client to purchase their services. Job design is a continuous process it aimed at helping employees make adjustment with the changes in the workplace. The end goal is reducing employee dissatisfaction, enhancing employee engagement and motivation at the workplace.

Disadvantages of Having a Poor Job Design

A poor jobs design and poor systems may result of organizational stress. Research by the World Health Organization indicates that most stress of job happens when an organization values excessive demands and pressures that do not match employees’ abilities and knowledge. A poor job design is often attended by a few opportunities for the employees to exercise control or select in their positions. By offering more control for employee in decision- making can increase employee morale and productivity, as well as remove job stress.

Overlooking poor work system design and job design might result in increased sick leaves and employee absenteeism. Employees can loss concern and become less committed and irritable to their work (Mary Tucker- McLaughlim, 2013). In addition, the poor ergonomics also will influence employee productivity and job satisfaction. Ergonomics is under biological job- design approach, it applied to verify those employees are not at risk of injury by pressure from working environment. However, ergonomics may also influence both on employees satisfaction and productivity of organization. One of the factors influence the worker productivity is poor design of ergonomics. This can be the physical layout of the workplace, which is poorly designed can slow down the employee’s want to move items around his/her workplace.

Empirical evidence on year 1998 study from Florida International University it indicated the movement of distance, effect of tool mass, and work height on the productivity of the subjects. This researched resulted that three variables had an impact on performance time. It was increased costs and decreased productivity due to poor ergonomics (Beth Winston, 2013).

Suggestion and Recommendation

Diagram 3

To develop a good job structure for new employee or senior employee who is promoted to higher position as a Human Resource (HR) manager must follow the development of job design showed at diagram 3. The way of develop job design is significance for future. It will reduce employee turnover in the organization through this will save cost from recruitment and training new employees. An employer might misinterpret that money is one of the tools to motivate their employees. Nowadays, job design is a significant in motivating employees to be more productive. Job design is an important impact on job satisfaction, employee motivation, and commitment to the organization. All of these will be affect the efficiency of the organization.

Another purpose of job design is done for correcting and identifying any insufficiencies that affect motivation and performance of employees. Before apply job design to employees must identify their skills and knowledge. After that, decide what job design approaches to providing them. Job design must continually process, it is not only for new employee who joins the organization but also senior employees. A job design is benefits for senior employees to learn more and prevent boredom on their current tasks. Nowadays, job design is very significant to all organizations.

When an organization gives a poor job design to an employee, it might result that low productivity or performance. This will influence the overall profitability within the organization. The organization has to customize to every employees because different employees have different level of ability or knowledge.

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