Definition Coin A Term Paper

Dr. Peter R Rizun is a managing editor for Ledger-- the first peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to Bitcoin and cryptocurrency research. The deadline for submissions for Ledger's inaugural edition is 31st December, 2015. 

What a long, strange trip it's been! Only four years ago, and two years after it started as a novelty in 2009, Reuben Grinberg published the first academic article on bitcoin, "BitCoin: An Innovative Alternative Digital Currency," in the 2011 issue of the Hastings Science & Technology Law Journal.

Since then, the pace of bitcoin research has accelerated to the point where it justifies its own peer-reviewed journal: Ledger.

In this article, I present a "Top 10" list of research papers published in 2015. The editors at Ledger think of each of them as "the one that got away", because they represent the kind of research that the journal supports.

While this list is by no means authoritative (and most certainly subjective), it reviews some of the year's most influential papers, and presents several others that were praised in academic circles but received little exposure within the bitcoin community.

We watch with excitement as increasing numbers of people begin to comprehend bitcoin's potential ramifications on our future world, and we look forward in anticipation to the results from cryptocurrency work and discovery that will undoubtedly come in 2016.

The list is a broad mix of papers from engineering, the sciences and economics that contributed to the nascent field of cryptocurrency research.

10. SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies
Authors: Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miller, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A. Kroll and Edward W Felten.

Given bitcoin's cypherpunk roots, its scattered documentation, and its lack of a formal specifications, Bonneau, Miller, Clark, Narayanan, Kroll and Felten complete the monumental tasks of producing the "first systematic exposition of bitcoin".

Written in the form of a review article, the paper collects, organizes and synthesizes a huge body of prior work -- from academic sources spanning three decades, to IRC logs, online discussion forums and developer mailing lists.

They identify three components of bitcoin's design that can be decoupled and analyzed individually: (1) transactions and scripts, (2) consensus and mining, and (3) the peer-to-peer communication network.

They also speak to the mystery of how a quarter century of academics was unable to discover what (apparently) came intuitively to Satoshi Nakamoto.

This is a must-read article for those interested in quickly getting up to speed on the current state of computer science research in cryptocurrency.

9. Eclipse Attacks on Bitcoin's Peer-to-Peer Network 
Authors: Ethan Heilman, Alison Kendler, Aviv Zohar and Sharon Goldberg.

Security researchers have been eager to identify new attack vectors against the bitcoin network since the authors of the "selfish mining" paper garnered praise and publicity in 2013.

Presented in August during the 24th USENIX Security Symposium in Washington, DC, authors Heilman, Kendler, Zohar and Goldberg reveal the "eclipse attack", in which the attacker "monopolizes all of the victim's incoming and outgoing connections, thus isolating the victim from the rest of its peers in the network".

The attacker can then trick the victim by feeding him misinformation about the state of the ledger, or coopt the victim's computing power for its own nefarious purposes.

8. Confidential Transactions
Author: Gregory Maxwell

That there is a strong desire for financial privacy in bitcoin comes as no surprise, given the community's historically libertarian leanings. Possibly no one has made more of an impact fostering privacy-enhancing techniques than Gregory Maxwell.

Following up on his 2013 invention of "coinjoin", in this report Maxwell presents his latest cutting-edge research. "Confidential Transactions" is a technique that permits users to hide the values of their payments from the public, yet -- with novel cryptographic methods-- present sufficient information to allow miners to verify that the sum of the coins transacted is preserved.

Implementing confidential transactions in bitcoin requires significant protocol changes; however, experimentation is currently being carried out on Blockstream sidechains.

7. Does Governance Have a Role in Pricing? Cross-Country Evidence from Bitcoin Markets
Robert Viglione

In this paper, PhD candidate Robert Viglione statistically proves an inverse relationship between economic freedom and bitcoin price premiums.

His methodology represents a potential market-based -- rather than expert-defined --measure of economic freedom that is updated in real time, rather than annually. This might provide us with data needed to run event studies that document the market's perception of elections, for example.

It also shows that even at this early, volatile stage, bitcoin is generating useful macroeconomic data.

6. Bitcoin in Islamic Banking and Finance
Charles W Evans

Considering that Muslims make up about 25% of the world's population, and that bitcoin is free of interest, Professor Charles Evans argues that the overlap between hard-money advocacy and Shari'a-compliant finance is large enough for these two communities to build intellectual bridges.

This paper has put bitcoin on the radar of many people previously far-removed from cryptocurrency, resulting in a surprising amount of attention from Muslims worldwide.

5. Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol
Authors: Ittay Eyal, Adem Efe Gencer, Emin Gun Sirer and Robbert van Renesse

As a follow-up to the influential 2013 manuscript on selfish mining, Cornell investigators Eyal, Gencer, Sirer and van Renesse do not disappoint.

Bitcoin-NG is a radical scalability proposal that employs "micro blocks" and "key blocks" to bypass the tradeoff between transactional throughput and latency in bitcoin's present peer-to-peer communication network.

In addition to benchmarking the performance of their proposal using a large-scale bitcoin-network simulator, the authors also introduce several novel metrics such as consensus delay and mining power utilization for quantifying the security and efficiency of blockchain protocols.

4. Digital Currencies
Author: Bank of International Settlements, Committee on Payments and Market Infrastructures

In its November report, this Bank of International Settlements committee recognized bitcoin's distributed ledger technology (the Blockchain) as a "genuinely innovative element within digital currency schemes".

The report states that such ledgers may offer lower costs to end users compared with existing centralized arrangements and that digital currencies such as bitcoin might address gaps in traditional payment services.

3. Should Cryptocurrencies be Included in the Portfolio of the International Reserves Held by the Central Bank of Barbados?
Winston Moore and Jeremy Stephen

In this working paper from the Central Bank of Barbados, economists Winston Moore and Jeremy Stephen conclude that holding a small portion of reserve assets in bitcoin could be beneficial to the small island nation.

The appropriate portfolio allocation could both improve returns and increase diversity against speculative attacks, without significantly affecting the volatility of the reserve balance.

The authors recognize that "digital currency could become a key currency for settling transactions" and that it is necessary for central banks to evaluate their potential impact.

This paper is significant because it reveals the emerging worldwide recognition of bitcoin as a useful store of value among central bank authorities.

2. The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol
Authors: Juan A Garay, Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos

Already with 24 citations attesting to its impact, "The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol" provides one of the first "provable security" models for a cryptocurrency's consensus algorithm.

Authors Garay, Kiayias and Leonardos "extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol," framing their analysis in terms of two novel properties they refer to as common prefix and chain quality.

The common prefix property relates to the network's ability to converge upon a single history, while the chain quality property describes the degree to which a malicious entity can gain an advantage in excess of its mining power.

Their results align with those from Eyal and Sirer (selfish mining) and in fact broadly generalize the underlying concepts.

1. The Bitcoin Lightning Network: Scalable Off-Chain Instant Payments
Authors: Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja

In perhaps the most influential paper of 2015, Poon and Dryja present their invention: the Bitcoin Lightning Network, which is an extension of two-party payment channels applied in such a way as to permit instant transactions between any number of participants.

Lightning transactions are normal bitcoin transactions, but-- except for rare cases -- are not actually posted to the Blockchain. Because the bulk of the transactional data is stored privately, lightning transactions are expected to be significantly less expensive than on-chain bitcoin transactions, thereby enabling affordable micropayments.

Poon and Dryja's vision may soon be realized, as Blockstream continues to work towards making the Lightning Network a reality.

Research paper image via Shutterstock

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Academic Research2015 Review

Coin a phrase

What's the meaning of the phrase 'Coin a phrase'?

To create a new phrase.

What's the origin of the phrase 'Coin a phrase'?

'To coin a phrase' is now rarely used with its original 'invent a new phrase' meaning but is almost always used ironically to introduce a banal or clichéd sentiment. This usage began in the mid 20th century; for example, in Francis Brett Young's novel Mr. Lucton's Freedom, 1940:

"It takes all sorts to make a world, to coin a phrase."

Coining, in the sense of creating, derives from the coining of money by stamping metal with a die. Coins - also variously spelled coynes, coigns, coignes or quoins - were the blank, usually circular, disks from which money was minted. This usage derived from an earlier 14th century meaning of coin, which meant wedge. The wedge-shaped dies which were used to stamp the blanks were called coins and the metal blanks and the subsequent 'coined' money took their name from them.

Coining later began to be associated with inventiveness in language. In the 16th century the 'coining' of words and phrases was often referred to. By that time the monetary coinage was often debased or counterfeit and the coining of words was often associated with spurious linguistic inventions; for example, in George Puttenham's The arte of English poesie, 1589:

"Young schollers not halfe well studied... will seeme to coigne fine wordes out of the Latin."

Shakespeare, the greatest coiner of them all, also referred to the coining of language in Coriolanus, 1607:

"So shall my Lungs Coine words till their decay."

Quoin has been retained as the name of the wedge-shaped keystones or corner blocks of buildings. Printers also use the term as the name for the expandable wedges that are used to hold lines of type in place in a press. This has provoked some to suggest that 'coin a phrase' derives from the process of quoining (wedging) phrases in a printing press. That is not so. 'Quoin a phrase' is recorded nowhere and 'coining' meant 'creating' from before the invention of printing in 1440. Co-incidentally, printing does provide us with a genuine derivation that links printing with linguistic banality - cliché. This derives from the French cliquer, from the clicking sound of the stamp used to make metal typefaces.

'Coin a phrase' itself arises much later than the invention of printing - the 19th century in fact. It appears to be American in origin - it certainly appears in publications there long before any can be found from any other parts of the world. The earliest use of the term that I have found is in the Wisconsin newspaper The Southport American, July 1848:

"Had we to find... a name which should at once convey the enthusiasm of our feelings towards her, we would coin a phrase combining the extreme of admiration and horror and term her the Angel of Assassination."

See also: Turn of phrase.

See other phrases that were coined in the USA.

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